## Exam 3 Review Flashcards

By: **
Flaka Ismaili
** April 30, 2022

Content

Depending on the location of the outlier, the correlation could be decreased or increased. We must construct a (t) distribution to look up the appropriate multiplier. Residuals are symbolized by (varepsilon ) (“epsilon”) in a population and (e) or (widehat) in a sample. If we were conducting a hypothesis test for this relationship, these would be step 2 and 3 in the 5 step process.

Know the meaning of linear and non-linear relationships and the relevance of each to correlation analysis. Know the meaning of high, moderate, low, positive, and negative correlations, and be able to recognize each from a verbal description of data. In order to do a correlation analysis you must have two variables in which the data consists of matched or paired cases. The two paired variables are usually referred to as X and Y.

## Approximating Standard Error of a Sample Estimate

Residuals are the difference between observed and estimated values in a regression analysis. Observed values that fall above the regression curve will have a positive residual value, and observed values that fall below the regression curve will have a negative residual value. The regression curve should lie along the center of the data points; therefore, the sum of residuals should be zero. The sum of a field can be calculated in a summary table. OLS regression can only be used to create a linear model. Linearity can be tested between the dependent variable and the explanatory variables using a scatter plot. A scatter plot matrix can test all the variables, provided there are no more than five variables in total.

Throughout the course of your exploratory analysis, you will test the assumptions of OLS regression and compare the effectiveness of different explanatory variables. Exploratory analysis will allow you to compare the effectiveness and accuracy of different models, but it does not determine whether you should use or reject your model. Exploratory analysis should be performed before confirmatory analysis for each regression model and reiterated to make comparisons between models. The coefficient of determination is a statistic which indicates the coefficient of determination is symbolized by the percentage change in the amount of the dependent variable that is “explained by” the changes in the independent variables. Finally is the error term, which incorporates the impact on Y, which can’t be attributed to a change in any of the independent variables. For a good regression equation, the error term should be as small as possible because that implies that the impact on Y can be reasonably explained by the chosen independent variables. The Data Analysis Toolpak will be necessary for completing regressions in MS Excel.

## Regression analysis

Know how r² can be computed from total variation and explained variation. Know the meaning of total variation, unexplained variation, and explained variation. https://personal-accounting.org/ Know the type of data required to do a correlation analysis. The two variables were measured on a continuous scale, instead of as ordered-category variables.

- The video below will walk you through the process of using simple linear regression to determine if the daily temperature can be used to predict wrap sales.
- Similar to previous solutions in JASP, we first need to import the data and then check to make sure our data types are correct.
- Said another way, error is the inaccuracy in our prediction.
- A student-run cafe wants to use data to determine how many wraps they should make today.
- Each dot on the screen represents datapoints of a single subject’s push-ups and dips completed.

Of course, this point may not matter much if we are using an app or computer program to perform the calculations for us. The t-statistic can also be interpreted by doing a hypothesis test. There are formulas that can be used to obtain the equation of a straight line that would minimize the sum of the squared errors. If we know the correlation between X and Y then regression will allow us to predict a Y value from any given X value.

## II. Raw Score Formula (Video

If the points could be considered to be clustered closely around a straight line there is a high correlation. If the points represent a circle there is no correlation. If the points go up as you move to the right, there is a positive correlation. If the points go down as you move to the right, there is a negative correlation. If the points do not consistently go up or down as you move to the right there is no correlation.